Article
Lewys Brace
A Short Introduction To The Involuntary Celibate Sub-Culture
Article
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10 min read
Article
Ben Lee
Only Playing: Extreme-Right Gamification
Article
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4 min read
Report
Sarah Marsden, James Lewis
Trauma, Adversity, And Violent Extremism
Report
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7 min read
Report
John F. Morrison, Andrew Silke, Heidi Maiberg, Chloe Slay, Rebecca Stewart
A Systematic Review Of Post-2017 Research On Disengagement And Deradicalisation
Report
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6 min read
Article
John F. Morrison, Andrew Silke, Heidi Maiberg, Chloe Slay, Rebecca Stewart
The Role Of (Dis)Trust In Disengagement And Deradicalisation
Article
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6 min read
Article
Dr Bettina Rottweiler, Professor Paul Gill
Risk Factors for Violent Extremist Beliefs and Parallel Problem Areas
Article
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3 min read
Article
Caroline Logan
Violent Extremism: The Assessment And Management Of Risk
Article
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7 min read
Report
James Lewis, Sarah Marsden
Countering Violent Extremism Interventions: Contemporary Research
Report
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7 min read
Report
Nigel Copsey, Samuel Merrill
Understanding 21st-Century Militant Anti-Fascism
Report
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4 min read
Article
Ben Lee
Think Global, Act Local: Reconfiguring Siege Culture
Article
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5 min read
Report
Amarnath Amarasingam, Shiraz Maher, Charlie Winter
How Telegram Disruption Impacts Jihadist Platform Migration
Report
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2 min read
Report
Florence Keen, Blyth Crawford, Guillermo Suarez-Tangil
Memetic Irony and the Promotion of Violence within Chan Cultures
Report
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2 min read
Report
James Lewis, Sarah Marsden
Public Experiences of the UK Counter-Terrorism System
Report
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3 min read
Article
Florence Keen
After 8chan
Article
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6 min read
Report
James Lewis, Simon Copeland, Sarah Marsden
Evaluating Programmes to Prevent and Counter Extremism
Report
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2 min read
Report
Simon Copeland, Sarah Marsden
Extremist Risk Assessment
Report
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2 min read
Guide
Neil Ferguson, James McAuley
The Violent Extremist Lifecycle: 12 Lessons from Northern Ireland
Guide
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5 min read
Article
Michele Grossman, Paul Thomas
Community Reporting on Terrorism: Bystanders Versus Social Intimates
Article
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4 min read
Article
Paul Thomas, Michele Grossman
Community Reporting of Terrorist Involvement During Covid-19
Article
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4 min read
Article
Rosie Mutton
Understanding the Roles Women Play in Violence Extremism and Why it Matters
Article
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4 min read
Article
Sarah Marsden
Countering Violent Extremism: A Guide to Good Practice
Article
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4 min read
Guide
Sarah Marsden, James Lewis, Kim Knott
Countering Violent Extremism: A Guide to Good Practice
Guide
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4 min read
Guide
Sarah Marsden
Deradicalisation Programmes: Introductory guide
Guide
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1 min read
Article
Sheryl Prentice
Influence In Extremist Messaging
Article
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4 min read
Article
Suzanne Newcombe
Disengagement: Lessons from Cults and Sectarian Groups
Article
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4 min read
Article
Sarah Marsden
Reintegrating Extremists: ‘Deradicalisation’ and Desistance
Article
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5 min read
Article
Tina Wilchen Christensen
From extremists to democratic citizens
Article
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6 min read
Article
Renate Geurts
Why professionals are needed to assess threats of violence
Article
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3 min read
Report
Paul Thomas, Michele Grossman
Community Reporting Thresholds
Report
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10 min read
Article
Michele Grossman, Paul Thomas
What are the barriers to reporting people suspected of violent extremism?
Article
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3 min read
Guide
Sarah Marsden, James Lewis, Kim Knott
Countering Violent Extremism: An Introduction
Guide
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2 min read
Article
Michele Grossman, Paul Thomas
Community Reporting: The key to defeating terrorism?
Article
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4 min read
Article
Dorothy Carter, Cynthia Maupin
Leadership Is a Social Network: Implications for Security
Article
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4 min read
Article
Adam Joinson, Brittany Davidson
Why networks matter
Article
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3 min read
Article
Mark Youngman
Lessons from the decline of the North Caucasus insurgency
Article
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4 min read
Report
Simon Copeland, Elizabeth Morrow, Cerwyn Moore
After Islamic State: Workshop 1
Report
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1 min read
Article
Nicholas Ryder
Is there something missing? Terror finances and the UK review of economic crime
Article
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3 min read
Article
Cerwyn Moore
Transnational Activism Through the Ages
Article
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3 min read
Article
George Joffé
Regional Guide: Tunisia
Article
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3 min read
Article
Wolfram Lacher
Regional Guide: Libya
Article
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3 min read
Article
Kris Christmann
Manchester attack: an 'arms race' against ever adapting terror networks
Article
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4 min read
Article
Michael Axworthy
Regional Guide: Iran
Article
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3 min read
Article
Joas Wagemakers
Regional Guide: Jordan
Article
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3 min read
Article
Elisabeth Kendall
Regional Guide: Yemen
Article
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4 min read
Article
Paul Taylor
7 Things Worth Knowing About Groups
Article
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4 min read
Article
Cerwyn Moore, Timothy Holman
Remainers and leavers: Foreign fighters after the ‘Islamic State’
Article
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5 min read
Article
Mark Youngman
After St Petersburg: Russia and the Threat from Central Asian Terror Networks
Article
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5 min read
Article
James Lewis
How do teachers engage with Prevent?
Article
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4 min read
Article
Ben Lee
Grassroots counter messaging in the UK
Article
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3 min read
Article
Ben Lee
A different perspective on CVE
Article
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4 min read
Article
Lynn Davies
Disrupting transmission of extremist messages through education
Article
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3 min read
Article
Linda Woodhead
The continuing growth of religious extremism and how to counter it
Article
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6 min read
Article
Nicholas Ryder
The Criminal Finances Bill
Article
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4 min read
Article
Matthew Francis
Research drives understanding and disruption of terrorism
Article
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4 min read
The Enabling Role of Internal Organizational Communication in Insider Threat Activity – Evidence From a High Security Organization

This paper explores the role of internal communication in one under-researched form of organizational crisis, insider threat – threat to an organization, its people or resources, from those who have legitimate access. In this case study, we examine a high security organization, drawing from in-depth interviews with management and employees concerning the organizational context and a real-life incident of insider threat. We identify the importance of three communication flows (top-down, bottom-up, and lateral) in explaining, and in this case, enabling, insider threat. Derived from this analysis, we draw implications for communication and security scholars, as well as practitioners, concerning: the impact of unintentional communication, the consequences of selective silence and the divergence in levels of shared understanding of security among different groups within an organization.

(From the journal abstract)


  Rice, C., & Searle, R. H. (2022). ‘The Enabling Role of Internal Organizational Communication in Insider Threat Activity – Evidence From a High Security Organization.’ Management Communication Quarterly. 

https://doi.org/10.1177%2F08933189211062250
The development of structured guidelines for assessing risk in extremist offenders

This paper describes a methodology developed by the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) to assess risk and needs in convicted extremist offenders in England and Wales, and for the assessment of those offenders for whom there are credible concerns about their potential to commit such offences. A methodology was needed to provide an empirically-based systematic and transparent approach to the assessment of risk to inform proportionate risk management; increase understanding and confidence amongst front-line staff and decision-makers, and facilitate effective and targeted intervention. It outlines how the methodology was developed, the nature of the assessment, its theoretical underpinnings, the challenges faced and how these have been addressed. Learning from casework with offenders, from government commissioned research and the wider literature is presented in the form of 22 general factors (with an opportunity to capture additional idiosyncratic factors, i.e., 22+) that contribute to an individual formulation of risk and needs that bears on three dimensions of engagement, intent and capability. The relationship of this methodology, the Extremism Risk Guidelines (ERG 22+) with comparable guidelines, the Violent Extremism Risk Assessment 2 (VERA version 2) and the Multi-Level Guidelines (MLG), is also discussed. This paper also considers the ERG’s utility, validity and limitations.

(From the journal abstract)


Lloyd, M., & Dean, C. (2015). The development of structured guidelines for assessing risk in extremist offenders. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2(1), 40–52.

https://doi.org/10.1037/tam0000035
Violence and Restraint within Antifa: A View from the United States

In recent months recurrent calls have been made by conservative right-wing politicians to designate Antifa a “domestic terrorist organization” in the United States. Fixated on the spectacle of its Black Bloc tactics they have equated Antifa, what is essentially an ad-hoc, non-hierarchical, geographically dispersed social movement comprised of local autonomous activist groups, with organized violent extremists. And yet, the evidence for such an equation has been mostly limited to a handful of instances that usually bare the hallmarks of political exaggeration or are alternatively attributable to individuals loosely associated with the Antifa movement. Why is this so? How do militant anti-fascists in the US understand violence and exercise restraint in their use of it? This article seeks an answer to these questions based on interviews with activists from Portland’s Rose City Antifa, one of the United States’ most well-known Antifa groups, and an analysis of a collection of the group’s Tweets. It reveals that Antifa exercises considerable restraint, internally and externally, with regards to both the literal and rhetorical use of violence within its street and digital activism. In turn it calls upon others to exercise reciprocal levels of restraint by ceasing their labelling of Antifa as a “domestic terrorist” organization.

(From the journal abstract)


Copsey, N., & Merrill, S. (2020). Violence and Restraint within Antifa: A View from the United States. Perspectives on Terrorism, 14(6), 122–138.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/26964730
Community reporting on violent extremism by 'intimates': emergent findings from international evidence

To promote early intervention strategies, Countering/Preventing Violent Extremism (C/PVE) policies internationally seek to encourage community reporting by 'intimates' about someone close to them engaging in terrorist planning.

Yet historically, we have scant evidence around what either helps or hinders intimates to share concerns with authorities. We address that deficit here through a state-of-the-art assessment of what we currently know about effective related C/PVE approaches to community reporting, based on key findings from a groundbreaking Australian study and its UK replication.

The consistency of qualitative findings from nearly 100 respondents offers new paradigms for policy and practice.

(From the journal abstract)


Paul Thomas, Michele Grossman, Kris Christmann, and Shamim Miah, 2020. Community reporting on violent extremism by 'intimates': emergent findings from international evidence. Critical Studies on Terrorism.https://doi.org/10.1080/17539153.2020.1791389

ISIS Propaganda: A Full-Spectrum Extremist Message

This book offers a comprehensive overview and analysis of the Islamic State's use of propaganda.

Combining a range of different theoretical perspectives from across the social sciences, and using rigorous methods, the authors trace the origins of the Islamic State's message, laying bare the strategic logic guiding its evolution, examining each of its multi-media components, and showing how these elements work together to radicalize audiences' worldviews.

This volume highlights the challenges that this sort of "full-spectrum propaganda" raises for counter terrorism forces. It is not only a one-stop resource for any analyst of IS and Salafi-jihadism, but also a rich contribution to the study of text and visual propaganda, radicalization and political violence, and international security.

(From the book abstract)


Stephane J. Baele, Katharine A. Boyd, and Travis G. Coan. 2020. ‘ISIS Propaganda: A Full-Spectrum Extremist Message’. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780190932459 

Ideological Transmission in Extremist Contexts: Towards a Framework of How Ideas Are Shared

Despite their centrality in academic and policy debates about radicalization and political violence, ideologies have been conceived narrowly, as cognitive, top-down, coherent and systematic.

In general, those who have used the concept of ideology have failed to draw on ideological theory or on recent insights about its practice and embodiment, or location in space and time.

Our interest is less in the content of ideology than in how it is shared by those for whom it matters. We offer an interpretive framework, based on six key questions about ideological transmission: What ideas, beliefs, and values are shared, how and why, by whom, and in which spatial and temporary contexts?

Following a discussion about the methodological pros and cons of the framework, it is tested on a series of interviews with members of Aum Shinrikyo, the Japanese religious group responsible for the Tokyo subway attack in 1995. We assess the strengths and limitations of the framework for analysing the various dimensions of ideological transmission before considering what it adds to our understanding of the relationship between extreme beliefs and violent behaviour.

(From the journal abstract)


Kim Knott & Benjamin Lee, 2020. Ideological Transmission in Extremist Contexts: Towards a Framework of How Ideas Are Shared. Politics, Religion & Ideology.

https://doi.org/10.1080/21567689.2020.1732938
Countering Violent Extremism Online: The Experiences of Informal Counter Messaging Actors

The online space is a haven for extremists of all kinds. Although efforts to remove violent and extremist content are increasing, there is a widely accepted need to also contest extremist messages with counter messages designed to undermine and disrupt extremist narratives.

While the majority of academic focus has been on large and well‐funded efforts linked to governments, this article considers the experiences of informal actors who are active in contesting extremist messaging but who lack the support of large institutions.

Informal actors come without some of the baggage that accompanies formal counter message campaigns, which have been attacked as lacking in credibility and constituting “just more government propaganda.” This has been noted by some of the wider countering violent extremism industry and the appetite for incorporating “real‐world” content in their campaigns seems to be rising.

This article fills a gap in our knowledge of the experiences of informal counter messaging actors. Through a series of in‐depth qualitative interviews it demonstrates that, despite the potentially serious risks of incorporating greater levels of informal content, there is an appetite among informal actors to engage with formal campaigns where they can be selective over who they work with and maintain a degree of control.

(From the journal abstract)


Benjamin Lee, 2019. Countering Violent Extremism Online: The Experiences of Informal Counter Messaging Actors. Policy & Internet. https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.210

‘Russia’ In Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism

This chapter on 'Russia' is one of a series of case studies in the Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism. The following description is from the publisher's website.

This new Handbook provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of current knowledge and debates on terrorism and counterterrorism, as well as providing a benchmark for future research.

The attacks of 9/11 and the ‘global war on terror’ and its various legacies have dominated international politics in the opening decades of the 21st century. In response to the dramatic rise of terrorism, within the public eye and the academic world, the need for an accessible and comprehensive overview of these controversial issues remains profound. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism seeks to fulfil this need. The volume is divided into two key parts:

Part I: Terrorism: This section provides an overview of terrorism, covering the history of terrorism, its causes and characteristics, major tactics and strategies, major trends and critical contemporary issues such as radicalisation and cyber-terrorism. It concludes with a series of detailed case studies, including the IRA, Hamas and Islamic State.

Part II: Counterterrorism: This part draws on the main themes and critical issues surrounding counterterrorism. It covers the major strategies and policies, key events and trends and the impact and effectiveness of different approaches. This section also concludes with a series of case studies focused on major counterterrorism campaigns.

This book will be of great interest to all students of terrorism and counterterrorism, political violence, counter-insurgency, criminology, war and conflict studies, security studies and IR more generally.

(From the book abstract)


Cerwyn Moore. 2019. ‘Russia’. In Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism, edited by Andrew Silke, 1st Edition, 604–14. Abingdon: Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Routledge-Handbook-of-Terrorism-and-Counterterrorism-1st-Edition/Silke/p/book/9781138819085.

Violent Extremism: A Comparison of Approaches to Assessing and Managing Risk

The task of assessing and managing risk of violence has evolved considerably in the last 25 years, and the field of violent extremism has the potential to stand on the shoulders of the giants of this time. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify good practice in the risk field and to apply that to the specific area of risk in relation to violent extremism – in order that developments here accord to highest standards of practice achieved so far elsewhere.

Method and Results

We begin by addressing the essential requirement to define the task of assessing and managing the risk of violent extremism – What is its purpose and parameters, who are its practitioners, in what contexts is this activity delivered, and how might any such context both facilitate and hinder the objectives of the task? Next, we map the terrain – What guidance is already available to assist practitioners in their work of understanding and managing the risk of violent extremism, and by what standards may we judge the quality of this and future guidance in the contexts in which is it applied? Finally, we explore options for the development of the field in terms of the empirical basis upon which the risks presented by individuals and the organizations to which they may affiliate are assessed, understood, and managed.

Conclusions

Recommendations are proposed in relation to each of these three areas of concern with a view to supporting the rapid and credible advancement of this growing and vital area of endeavour.

(From the journal abstract)


Caroline Logan and Monica Lloyd. 2019. ‘Violent Extremism: A Comparison of Approaches to Assessing and Managing Risk’. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 24 (1): 141–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/lcrp.12140.

Informal Countermessaging: The Potential and Perils of Informal Online Countermessaging

Online countermessaging—communication that seeks to disrupt the online content disseminated by extremist groups and individuals—is a core component of contemporary counterterrorism strategies. Countermessaging has been heavily criticized, not least on the grounds of effectiveness. Whereas current debates are focused on the role of government and large organizations in developing and disseminating countermessages, this article argues that such approaches overlook the informal production of countermessages. Recognizing the appetite for “natural world” content among those engaged in countermessaging, this article highlights some of the potential benefits of informal approaches to countermessaging. At the same time, the article also acknowledges the risks that may result from closer working between countermessaging organizations and informal actors.

(From the journal abstract)


Benjamin Lee. 2018. ‘Informal Countermessaging: The Potential and Perils of Informal Online Countermessaging’. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2018.1513697.

Applying the Study of Religions in the Security Domain: Knowledge, Skills, and Collaboration

Since the 1990s, scholars of religion on both sides of the Atlantic have been drawn into engagement with law enforcement agencies and security policymakers and practitioners, particularly for their expertise on new religious movements and Islam. Whilst enabling researchers to contribute to real-world challenges, this relationship has had its frustrations and difficulties, as well as its benefits and opportunities. Drawing on examples from the UK, Canada, and the US, I set out the relationship between religion and the contemporary security landscape before discussing some of the key issues arising in security research partnerships. I then turn to the question of knowledge exchange and translation in the study of religions, developing the distinction between ‘know what’ (knowledge about religions and being religiously literate), ‘know why’ (explaining religions and making the link to security threats), and ‘know how’ (researcher expertise and skills in engagement with practitioners).

(From the journal abstract)


Kim Knott. 2018. ‘Applying the Study of Religions in the Security Domain: Knowledge, Skills, and Collaboration’. Journal of Religious and Political Practice, 4 (3): 354–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/20566093.2018.1525901.

Out with the Old and … In with the Old? A Critical Review of the Financial War on Terrorism on the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant

This article critically considers the effectiveness of the ‘Financial War on Terrorism’ on the funding streams of the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL).

The next section of the article highlights how the international community concentrated on tackling money laundering prior to the terrorist attacks in September 2001 and how this policy dramatically altered. In particular, this section concentrates on the development of and definition of the ‘Financial War on Terrorism’.

The final part of the article seeks to determine if the ‘Financial War on Terrorism’ is able to tackle the funding streams of ISIL.

(From the journal abstract)


Ryder, Nicholas. 2018. ‘Out with the Old and … In with the Old? A Critical Review of the Financial War on Terrorism on the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant’. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 41 (2): 79–95. http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/28343/.

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