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Simon Oleszkiewicz, Lynn Weiher, Erik Mac Giolla
Developing A Paradigm To Assess And Measure Adaptability
Report
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3 min read
Guide
Chris Baber, Ian Apperly, Emily McCormick
AI and Senior Managers
Guide
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5 min read
Report
Chris Baber, Ian Apperly, Emily McCormick
Understanding The Problem Of Explanation When Using AI In Intelligence Analysis
Report
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2 min read
Guide
Susan Brandon
Substance or Snake Oil?
Guide
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15 min read
Article
Nathan Smith
Resilient Performance Of Defence And Security Personnel
Article
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5 min read
Article
David McIlhatton, Rachel Monaghan
Protecting Publicly Accessible Locations From Terrorism
Article
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5 min read
Article
Steven Watson
Risk, benefits, and the affect heuristic in security behaviours
Article
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6 min read
Article
Ian Stanier, Jordan Nunan
FIREPLACES And Informant Motivation
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5 min read
Article
Simon Oleszkiewicz
The Adaptable Law Enforcement Officer
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5 min read
Report
Emma Slade, Emma Williams, Duncan Hodges, Phillip Morgan, Dylan Jones, Bill Macken, Emily Collins, Tasos Spiliotopoulos
Individual Differences in the Adoption, Secure Use, and Exploitation of Smart Home Technology
Report
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4 min read
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Emma Williams, Emma Slade
What Influences Consumer Adoption and Secure Use of Smart Home Technology?
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3 min read
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Ashraf Labib
Taking Decisions about Information Value
Report
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2 min read
Guide
Paul Gill
How Do Criminals Make Decisions?
Guide
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15 min read
Guide
Paul Gill
How do terrorists make decisions?
Guide
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6 min read
Guide
Ashraf Labib
A sea change for intelligence analysis?
Guide
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10 min read
Guide
Laurence Alison
Considerations for Training Development
Guide
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5 min read
Guide
Laurence Alison
Factors that Affect Command Decision-Making
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10 min read
Report
Math Noortmann, Juliette Koning, Joost Vervoort, Ingrid Hoofd
Imaginative Scenario Planning
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2 min read
Guide
Math Noortmann, Juliette Koning
Imaginative Scenario Planning Toolkit
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2 min read
Article
Olivia Brown
Teamwork in Extreme Environments: Identifying Challenges and Generating Solutions
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4 min read
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Marc Jones
Challenge or Threat: Understanding How People Cope in Demanding Environments
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5 min read
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Jesper Corneliussen, Anders Kjaergaard
Conflict Management in Extreme Environments
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4 min read
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Debi Ashenden
Algorithmic Decision Making
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5 min read
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Debi Ashenden
Data and the Social and Behavioural Sciences
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4 min read
Report
Emma Barrett, Nathan Smith
Performance and coping under stress in security settings
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1 min read
Article
Nicola Power
Terror attacks: How psychological research can help improve the emergency response
Article
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4 min read
Nicola Power
A to Z of Decision Making
4 min read
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Laurence Alison, Michael Humann, Sara Waring
Communicating with casualties in emergencies
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3 min read
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Paul Gill
8 things you need to know about terrorist decision-making
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4 min read
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Julie Gore, Paul Ward, Gareth Conway
Naturalistic Decision Making and Uncertainty
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2 min read
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Simon Ruda
Measuring decision making
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4 min read
Article
Nicola Power
Decision making during emergencies: what have we learned and where do we go from here?
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4 min read
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Awais Rashid, Sylvain Frey
Cyber security decisions: how do you make yours?
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3 min read
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Emma Barrett, Nathan Smith
Decision making under stress
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5 min read
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Christos Ellinas
Predicting and Preparing for the Failure of Complex Systems
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4 min read
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Olivia Brown
Teamwork in extreme environments
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3 min read
Article
Nick Donnelly, Anne Hillstrom, Natalie Mestry
Just another face in the crowd – what makes spotting unfamiliar faces difficult?
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3 min read
Guide
Nick Donnelly, Anne Hillstrom, Natalie Mestry
What makes spotting faces difficult?
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1 min read
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Nick Donnelly, Anne Hillstrom, Natalie Mestry
Finding hidden targets
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2 min read
Guide
Nick Donnelly, Anne Hillstrom, Natalie Mestry
Individual differences in ability to search
Guide
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1 min read
Guide
Nick Donnelly, Anne Hillstrom, Natalie Mestry
Detecting rare targets
Guide
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1 min read
Guide
Nick Donnelly, Anne Hillstrom, Natalie Mestry
How training and professional experience affect the ability to spot targets
Guide
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1 min read
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Joanne Hinds
What is the role of technology in an emergency?
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4 min read
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Nicola Power
Joint Decision Making in Real-World Emergencies: Recommendations for Improving the Joint Decision Model
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4 min read
The role of information sharing on decision delay during multiteam disaster response

Multiteam systems (MTSs) are comprised of two or more interconnected teams working toward shared superordinate goals but with unique sub-goals. To date, research has predominantly focused on how decisions are made and has viewed these cognitive processes as occurring within individuals. However, for MTSs operating in extreme environments such as disasters, it is often not a question of how decisions are made, but what is causing delays and failures to make decisions. To understand the causes of decision delay within these complex networks, it is important to focus on decision processes at the multiteam level. Using naturalistic observational and interview data collected during a multi-site, multiteam emergency response to a large-scale disaster exercise, this study examines both information sharing (what was shared, with whom, how long this took), and decision processes across teams (situational awareness—SA, plan formulation, and plan execution). Findings demonstrate that interdependencies in cognitive processes exist across individuals where goals overlap. Decision delay is not only caused by failure to develop SA within a team preventing their ability to formulate and execute plans but also by the inability of other teams to execute their plans. The implications of these findings for developing targeted interventions are discussed.

(From the journal abstract)


Waring, S., Alison, L., Humann, M., & Shortland, N. (2019). The role of information sharing on decision delay during multiteam disaster response. Cognition, Technology & Work, 22(2), 263-279. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10111-019-00570-7)

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10111-019-00570-7)
Communication and coordination across event phases: A multi-team system emergency response

This paper explores how multi-agency response teams communicate and coordinate in different phases of a simulated terrorist incident. Procedural guidelines state that responders should coordinate their response to a major emergency across two phases: ‘response’ (when the incident is ongoing) and ‘recovery’ (when the threat has subsided, but the legacy of the incident is ongoing). However, no research has examined whether these phases map to the behaviours of responders in situ. To address this, we used measures of communication and coordination to examine how behaviours evolved during a simulated terrorist incident in the United Kingdom. We grounded our approach within the theoretical literature on multi-team systems. It was found that the current response/recovery classification does not fit the nuanced context of an emergency. Instead, a three-phase structure of ‘response/resolve/recovery’ is more reflective of behaviour. It was also found that coordination between agencies improved when communication networks became less centralized. This suggests that collaborative working in multi-team systems may be improved by adopting decentralized communication networks.

(From the journal abstract)


Brown, O., Power, N. and Conchie, S.M. (2021), Communication and coordination across event phases: A multi-team system emergency response. J Occup Organ Psychol.

https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12349
An evidence synthesis of strategies, enablers and barriers for keeping secrets online regarding the procurement and supply of illicit drugs

This systematic review attempts to understand how people keep secrets online, and in particular how people use the internet when engaging in covert behaviours and activities regarding the procurement and supply of illicit drugs.

With the Internet and social media being part of everyday life for most people in western and non-western countries, there are ever-growing opportunities for individuals to engage in covert behaviours and activities online that may be considered illegal or unethical.

A search strategy using Medical Subject Headings terms and relevant key words was developed. A comprehensive literature search of published and unpublished studies in electronic databases was conducted.

Additional studies were identified from reference lists of previous studies and (systematic) reviews that had similar objectives as this search, and were included if they fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Two researchers independently screened abstracts and full-texts for study eligibility and evaluated the quality of included studies. Disagreements were resolved by a consensus procedure. The systematic review includes 33 qualitative studies and one cross-sectional study, published between 2006 and 2018.

Five covert behaviours were identified: the use of communication channels; anonymity; visibility reduction; limited posts in public; following forum rules and recommendations. The same technologies that provide individuals with easy access to information, such as social networking sites and forums, digital devices, digital tools and services, also increase the prevalence of inaccurate information, loss of privacy, identity theft and disinhibited communication.

This review takes a rigorous interdisciplinary approach to synthesising knowledge on the strategies adopted by people in keeping secrets online. Whilst the focus is on the procurement and supply of illicit drugs, this knowledge is transferrable to a range of contexts where people keep secrets online. It has particular significance for those who design online/social media applications, and for law enforcement and security agencies.

(From the journal abstract)


Aikaterini Grimani, Anna Gavine and Wendy Moncur, 2020. An evidence synthesis of strategies, enablers and barriers for keeping secrets online regarding the procurement and supply of illicit drugs. International Journal of Drug Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.102621

Terrorist Decision Making in the Context of Risk, Attack Planning, and Attack Commission

Terrorists from a wide array of ideological influences and organizational structures consider security and risk on a continuous and rational basis. The rationality of terrorism has been long noted of course but studies tended to focus on organizational reasoning behind the strategic turn toward violence. A more recent shift within the literature has examined rational behaviors that underpin the actual tactical commission of a terrorist offense. This article is interested in answering the following questions: What does the cost–benefit decision look like on a single operation? What does the planning process look like? How do terrorists choose between discrete targets? What emotions are felt during the planning and operational phases? What environmental cues are utilized in the decision-making process? Fortunately, much insight is available from the wider criminological literature where studies often provide offender-oriented accounts of the crime commission process. We hypothesize similar factors take place in terrorist decision making and search for evidence within a body of terrorist autobiographies.

(From the journal abstract)


Paul Gill, Zoe Marchment, Emily Corner, and Noémie Bouhana. 2018. ‘Terrorist Decision Making in the Context of Risk, Attack Planning, and Attack Commission’. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism: https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2018.1445501.

Lessons from the Extreme: What Business Negotiators Can Learn from Hostage Negotiations

Editors’ Note: The high-stakes world of the hostage negotiator draws instinctive respect from other negotiators. But if you operate in another domain, you could be excused for thinking that hostage negotiation has nothing to do with you.

That impression, it turns out, is quite often wrong. Here, two researchers draw parallels to several kinds of business and other disputes in which it often seems that one of the parties acts similarly to a hostage taker. Understanding what hostage negotiators have learned to do in response can be a real asset to a negotiator faced with one of these situations.

(From the book abstract)


Taylor, Paul J., and William A. Donohue. 2017. ‘Lessons from the Extreme: What Business Negotiators Can Learn from Hostage Negotiations’. In Negotiator’s Desk Reference, edited by Chris Honeyman and Andrea Kupfer Schneider. DRI Press. www.ndrweb.com.

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